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Bromine and its Properties


Bromine occurs as a dense red and volatile liquid with a choking, irritating smell.

Physical Properties

Density (g/cm3): 3.2

Melting point (oC): -7

Boiling point (oC): 59

Solubility in water: It dissolves slightly to form oxobromate(I), HOBr acid and HBr 

Chemical Properties

Electronegativity and reactivity in comparison with other halides: It shows lower electronegativity and reactivity in comparison with chlorine, but higher when compared with iodine.

Bromine can be made to react directly with hydrogen only by heating or in the presence of a catalyst such as platinum.

It reacts moderately with metals and non metals.

It shows weak bleaching action.

Its oxidizing action is moderate.

Bromine reacts with dilute alkalis to form bromate(I) and bromides, while with concentrated alkalis, it forms bromate(V) and bromides.

Bromine always displaces iodine from iodides.

Compounds of Bromine

Silver Bromide: Silver bromide is a pale-yellow solid, which is insoluble in water and in dilute HNO3. It is sparingly soluble in ammonia solution. In the presence of light, it is reduced to silver.

Hydrogen Bromide: This is a colourless gas, which is soluble in water to form an acidic, constant boiling mixture. The gas is denser than air.

Oxides of Bromine: No stable oxide of bromine is formed.

Compounds of bromine show the most photoelectric activity compared to compounds of chlorine and iodine. They also show higher thermal stability than compounds of iodine but less than those of chlorine.


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