Organic solvents

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Organic Solvents

 

Organic solvents are chemical compounds consisting of at least one carbon and one hydrogen atoms in their molecules.

Generally, organic solvents are suitable in dissolving organic solutes. Fats, oil, paints and wax are organic compounds, and such organic solvents as: tetrachloromethane; benzene; diethylether; and alcohol are well known for dissolving them.

Kerosene (also called paraffin) and petrol (also called gasoline) may be used also. Removal of stains – stains of organic compounds, such as grease and oil on fabric can be removed by applying any suitable organic solvent, such as any of the above.

Organic solvents are therefore majorly used in the industry in manufacturing paints, lacquers, dyes, varnishes, adhesives, cleaning/degreasing products, polymers, textiles, pharmaceutical products, printing inks, agricultural products, and plastics.

Properties of Organic Solvents

Organic solvents generally have the following properties:

1. Low molecular weight

2. lipophilicity

3. Volatility

4. Liquid form at room temperature.

 

Organic Solvents And Their Properties


Solvent

Chemical Formula Molecular mass Boiling Point (oC) Melting Point (oC)

Acetone 

C3H6O

58.08

56.2

-94.3

Benzene 

C6H6

78.11

80.1 

5.5

Chlorobenzene

C6H5Cl

112.56

131.7 

-45.6

Acetic acid 

C2H4O2

60.05

118  

16.6

Chloroform   

CHCl3

119.38

61.7

-63.7

2-butanone   

C4H8O

72.11

79.6

-86.3

1-butanol   

C4H10O

74.12

117.6

-89.5

2-butanol   

C4H10O

74.12

98

-115

p-xylene   

C8H10

106.17

138.4

13.3

m-xylene   

C8H10

106.17

139.1

-47.8

o-xylene   

C8H10

106.17

144

-25.2

Ethanol   

C2H6O

46.07

78.5

-114.1

Ethyl acetate   

C4H8O2

88.11

77

-83.6

Ethylene glycol   

C2H6O2

62.07

195

-13

Formamide (DMF)   

C3H7NO

73.09

153

-61

Pyridine   

C5H5N

79.10

115.2

-41.6

Toluene   

C7H8

92.14

110.6

-93

Pentane   

C5H12

72.15

36.1

-129.7

1-propanol   

C3H8O

88.15

97

-126

Nitromethane   

CH3NO2

61.04

101.2

-29

Methanol   

CH4O

32.04

64.6

-98

Hexane   

C6H14

86.18

69

-95

Methylene chloride   

CH2Cl2

84.93

39.8

-96.7

Ether (MTBE)  

C5H12O

88.15

55.2

 -109

Triethyl amine   

C6H15N

101.19

88.9

-114.7

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
(NMP)   

CH5H9NO

99.13

202

-24

Tetrahydrofuran (THF)  

C4H8O

72.11

66

-108.4

Carbon tetrachloride   

CCl4

153.82

76.7

-22.4

Cyclohexane   

C6H12

84.16

80.7

6.6

Diethyl ether   

C4H10O

74.12

34.6

-116.3

Diethylene glycol   

C4H10O3

106.12

245

-10

Glycerin   

C3H8O3

92.09

290

17.8

Heptane   

C7H16

100.20

98

-90.6

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)   

C2H6OS

78.13

189

18.4

Acetonitrile   

C2H3N

41.05

81.6

-46

t-butyl alcohol  

C4H10O

74.12

82.2

 25.5

Dimethylether   

C2H6O

46.07

-22

-138.5

Diglyme (diethylene glycol
dimethyl ether)   

C6H14O3

134.17

162

-68

1,2-dimethoxy-
ethane (glyme, DME)   

C4H10O2

90.12

85

-58

2-propanol   

C3H8O

88.15

82.4

-88.5

1,2-dichloroethane   

C2H4Cl2

98.96

83.5

-35.3

Dioxane   

C4H8O2

88.11

101.1

11.8

Hexamethylphosphorous
triamide (HMPT)   

C6H18N3P

163.20

150

-44

Hexamethylphosphoramide
(HMPA)   

C6H18N3OP

179.20

232.5

7.2

 

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