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Bromine: Hazards, Properties, Uses, Formula

 

What is Bromine?

Bromine is a reddish-brown volatile liquid with a choking, irritating smell. It is identified with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. Bromine is used for different purposes. It is used in the agriculture sector, the industries, and even in the laboratories. However, some of its earlier uses are no longer encouraged due to its effect to the environment.

Bromine is toxic and this article will guide you on how best to handle and avoid the hazards associated with the chemical.

bromine factsBromine Formula

The chemical formula of bromine is Br2. It shows two atoms of bromine in a molecule.

Bromine Properties

Physical Properties

atomic number: 35

Density (g/cm3): 3.2

Molar mass: 159.8080 g/mol

Melting point (oC): -7

Boiling point (oC): 59

Solubility in water: It dissolves slightly to form oxobromate(I), HOBr acid and HBr 

Chemical Properties

Electronegativity and reactivity in comparison with other halides: It shows lower electronegativity and reactivity in comparison with chlorine, but higher when compared with iodine.

Bromine can be made to react directly with hydrogen only by heating or in the presence of a catalyst such as platinum.

It reacts moderately with metals and non metals.

It shows weak bleaching action.

Its oxidizing action is moderate.

Bromine reacts with dilute alkalis to form bromate(I) and bromides, while with concentrated alkalis, it forms bromate(V) and bromides.

Bromine always displaces iodine from iodides.

Compounds of Bromine

Silver Bromide: Silver bromide is a pale-yellow solid, which is insoluble in water and in dilute HNO3. It is sparingly soluble in ammonia solution. In the presence of light, it is reduced to silver.

Hydrogen Bromide: This is a colorless gas, which is soluble in water to form an acidic, constant boiling mixture. The gas is denser than air.

Oxides of Bromine: No stable oxide of bromine is formed.

Compounds of bromine show the most photoelectric activity compared to compounds of chlorine and iodine. They also show higher thermal stability than compounds of iodine but less than those of chlorine.

Common Bromine Hazards

Bromine is dangerous to health if one is exposed it. This chemical has the ability to destroy the human tissue whether as liquid or gas.

The vapor causes irritation and pain when it enters the eye and throat. Inhaling bromine is highly toxic to the health.

The liver, lungs, and the entire respiratory system are badly affected.

This chemical also causes harm to the environment when it is used for pest controls. It literally harms animal life and plant life apart from the pest you intend to control.

Bromine Safety Handling Procedures

  • To avoid the hazards associated with bromine when working with it, here are safety precautions to apply:

    Before you start working with this chemical, protect your body with the proper kit that is able to keep the chemicals off.
  • Your eyes should be protected with goggles that can shield them from chemicals.
  • Your hands should be protected with chemical proof gloves.
  • Avoid eating or drinking anything while working with bromine. 

Bromine Safety Storage Procedure

To safely store bromine and reduce or eliminate its hazardous impact on the environment, here are tips to apply:
  • The appropriate place to store bromine is a cool and dry environment far away from heat, fire, and any combustible item.
  • When storing bromine in containers, always make sure you place a label for identification purpose to be able to differentiate bromine from other items.
  • Glass or ceramic containers are appropriate for storing bromine.

Bromine Safety Disposal Procedures

Bromine is a very toxic chemical, disposing it in the right way is important. You can apply the following disposal procedure in order to ensure safety.
  • Since disposing bromine is a dangerous practice, it is normally recommended for you to contact a professional that specializes in disposing chemicals.
  • Before taking it to a facility for disposal, you can choose to neutralize its toxicity first.
  • Always follow the standards approved by the authorities.

How to Handle Exposures to Bromine

Make use of first aid procedure if you get exposed to bromine. The procedure will help you reduce or stop the chemical’s damages.

Now, here are tips to apply when exposed to bromine:
  • Skin exposure: When bromine touches the skin, make use of enough clean water to rinse the chemical off your skin. Remove your clothes if they are affected too.
  • Inhalation: Inhaling bromine is very deadly. If inhaled, the victim should be moved to an open space that has enough fresh air. After this practice, call for medical attention promptly.
  • Ingestion: Ingestion is another thing you should guide against. Whenever bromine is swallowed, the victim should not be forced to vomit. The mouth should be rinsed with water and then call for medical attention promptly.
  • Fire accident: Sometimes, bromine causes fire accident if it is stored close to heat, fire or combustible items. You can use extinguishers to put out the fire. Making use of water jet is a wrong decision, avoid it totally.

Bromine Preparation

Naturally, bromine is derived from the earth’s crust and is also found in seawater.

The industrial method for producing bromine is by reacting chlorine together with brine ions. This method is usually quick.

Bromine Uses

Presently, bromine is mostly used for purification, in the place of chlorine. It is also used for treating swimming pools as a purifying agent.

It is also used as one of the major ingredients for producing dyes, plastics, rubber, etc.

 

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